Conflict Management CM

CFP: SI & Virtual Conference: Entrepreneurship & Negotiation: April 23-24

  • 1.  CFP: SI & Virtual Conference: Entrepreneurship & Negotiation: April 23-24

    Posted 02-01-2021 13:28

    Entrepreneurship and Negotiation: Call for Papers and Proposals

    Negotiation Journal Virtual Conference and Special Issue

    Sponsored by the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School and Babson College 

    Special Issue Editors: Lakshmi Balachandra, MBA, Ph.D. and Melissa Manwaring, M.Ed., J.D.


    Draft paper / proposal submissions due: March 1, 2021(Application link HERE)

    Acceptance notification: March 15, 2021

    Virtual Conference: April 23-24, 2021


    Final submissions for Negotiation Journal Special Issue due: June 25, 2021

    Special issue scheduled for publication in Fall 2021


    While negotiation and entrepreneurship scholars have traditionally worked in different circles, their work increasingly intersects as the two fields co-evolve. These intersections are unsurprising, given the parallels between the fields. Both entrepreneurship and negotiation involve dynamic, strategic, interpersonal activities that seek to create and claim some form of value.  Both involve inherent risk and uncertainty and often generate intense emotional investment.  Both require a balance of preparation and adaptation along with simultaneous attention to relationships and substantive issues.  Research in both areas has drawn from multiple traditional disciplines (Lewicki et al., 2015; Busenitz, et al., 2003; Venkataraman, 1997) and delineated tangible and intangible value creation (see, e.g. Curhan et al., 2006; Fayolle, 2007).  Increasingly, researchers are exploring how entrepreneurs negotiate and manage conflict in the distinct context of new ventures -- as well as what negotiators in any context might learn from entrepreneurship theory and practice.  We view these intersections as not only generative but necessary in an increasingly uncertain and interconnected world.    

    PON/Babson Conference and Negotiation Journal Special Issue

    For the first time, the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (PON) and Babson College ‒ global leaders in the study of negotiation and entrepreneurship, respectively ‒ are collaborating to provide a forum for new research at the intersection of these two domains. As part of this effort, Negotiation Journal (a quarterly interdisciplinary journal published by PON through Wiley) will publish a special issue on Entrepreneurship and Negotiation, scheduled for Fall 2021.  The special issue editors are Lakshmi Balachandra (Associate Professor in Entrepreneurship at Babson College) and Melissa Manwaring (Senior Lecturer in Management at Babson College and Negotiation Journal Associate Editor for Education), in collaboration with Negotiation Journal’s Editor-in-Chief Joel Cutcher-Gershenfeld and Managing Editor Silvia Glick.  

    In order to connect scholars, support promising papers, and develop ideas for the Negotiation Journal special issue, PON and Babson College will jointly host a virtual conference on April 23-24, 2021.  We will limit conference attendance to 25-50 participants to maximize interaction in the online format and encourage diverse, high-quality contributions.  We welcome applicants from a variety of research disciplines, experiences, and perspectives.

    The PON/Babson Entrepreneurship and Negotiation Conference has two primary purposes: (1) to provide a developmental forum for peer feedback on research proposals and/or existing papers for potential publication in the Fall 2021 Negotiation Journal special issue; and (2) to foster collaboration opportunities among like-minded scholars whose professional networks may not typically overlap.  Applicants will be selected based on the likely suitability of their paper or proposal for publication in the special issue, with the goal of bringing together a diverse set of perspectives.  While selection for the conference does not guarantee publication, it indicates that the editors view the paper or proposal as promising, and counts as one positive peer review.  This increases the chance of acceptance to the special issue (contingent on an additional, successful peer review). 

    Therefore, we invite both works-in-progress and article proposals that broadly address the intersection of entrepreneurship and negotiation.  Potential areas of inquiry include, but are not limited to:

    • Research on negotiation, conflict, and/or conflict management processes in the context of entrepreneurial ventures
    • Research on the application of entrepreneurial mindsets, behaviors, and/or strategies to negotiation in any context
    • Pedagogical pieces that connect entrepreneurship and negotiation, such as how to tailor a negotiation course for entrepreneurs, or how to incorporate entrepreneurial principles into a general negotiation course

    Timeline and Deadlines

    March 1, 2021:  Initial papers or proposals due.  Please complete this survey to submit a paper or proposal for possible acceptance to the April 2021 virtual conference and publication in the Fall 2021 Negotiation Journal special issue.  Paper submissions should be 3,000-10,000 words and follow the Negotiation Journal Author Guidelines. Proposals should be 250-500 words and should include, at a minimum, the proposed area of focus, proposed research methods (if applicable), and an explanation of how the paper would contribute to the existing literature.  Please contact the special issue editors, Lakshmi Balachandra ( and Melissa Manwaring ( with any questions.  

    March 15, 2021:  Acceptance notification.  You will be notified by this date if your paper or proposal is accepted for inclusion in the April 2021 virtual conference.  Participation in the conference is strongly recommended in order for your work to be considered for publication in the Fall 2021 Negotiation Journal special issue.   

    April 23-24, 2021: PON/Babson Entrepreneurship and Negotiation Conference.  This two-day conference of 25-50 scholars is designed to support the development and publication of papers at the confluence of entrepreneurship and negotiation.  The program will be highly interactive, with feedback sessions on existing work as well as small-group networking and idea development sessions.  Participants are expected to attend both days of the conference. Each day’s program will run 4 to 5 hours including breaks.  More detailed program information is forthcoming.

    June 25, 2021:  Final paper submission deadline.  Papers will be reviewed according to the Negotiation Journal double-blind peer review process, and publication is contingent on recommendations from at least two peer reviewers.  Acceptance to the April 2021 virtual conference counts as the first positive peer review for completed manuscripts.  

    Fall 2021: Publication of the Negotiation Journal special issue on Entrepreneurship and Negotiation.

    Potential avenues for research 

    Entrepreneurship scholars who study negotiation have frequently focused on the negotiation dynamics between entrepreneurs and investors.  This context-specific literature encompasses negotiating moments like the pitch and the factors that influence investor decision-making, such as gender stereotypes and bias (e.g., Balachandra et al., 2019; Brush et al., 2018; Kanze et al., 2018; Malmström et al., 2018), displays of passion (e.g., Cardon et al., 2016), and trustworthiness (e.g., Maxwell & Levesque, 2014). 

    While researchers have begun to anecdotally explore the broader range of negotiations faced by entrepreneurs, both with external stakeholders (Dinnar & Susskind, 2019) and within their own teams (Boone et al., 2020; Chen et al., 2017), much remains unknown about how and what entrepreneurs negotiate.  For instance, how does the failure-based learning mentality common to entrepreneurs (Khanna et al., 2016) affect their approach to negotiations? Does the prevailing “masculine” stereotype for entrepreneurial success (e.g. Balachandra et al., 2019) affect entrepreneurs’ behavioral norms during negotiations, regardless of their gender?  How do entrepreneurs define “value” or “success” in negotiations?  These and other outstanding questions offer interesting avenues for research contributions.

    Conflict in the new venture context provides additional fertile ground for research.  Most intra-organizational conflict research was developed in the context of established, operational organizations, which differ dramatically from the new venture environment.  At the inception of a venture, there is generally little or no precedent for business, communication, or decision-making processes (Mischel, 1977), which means that roles and responsibilities are ill-defined and evolving (Staw, 1991).  Ambiguity regarding ownership rights can create decision-making conflicts (Bhawe et al., 2017).  Resources such as finances and personnel are usually scarce (Grossman et al., 2012), particularly in a bootstrapped venture (Rutherford et al., 2017).  At the same time, the leadership team typically faces several major decisions ‒ e.g. funding, marketing strategy, launch plan ‒ that can profoundly affect the future and ultimate success or failure of the venture.  Founders and other early-stage personnel typically invest a great deal of emotional and psychological capital into the venture, which can manifest as both passion and stress (Wincent and Örtqvist, 2009; Shepherd et al., 2010; De Mol et al., 2018).  While researchers have begun to explore how conflict manifests in nascent ventures (e.g. George et al., 2016; Santos et al., 2019; Yin et al., 2020), the unique dynamics of this environment remain ripe for exploration.  For instance, how do different negotiation and conflict management approaches moderate the effects of conflict within entrepreneurial teams (e.g. Erikson & Berg-Utby, 2009; Kozusznik et al., 2020)? Are there negotiation approaches, such as contingent agreements, early in the launch process that anticipate and mitigate conflict later in the life of the venture?

    Of course, interdisciplinary negotiation and entrepreneurship research need not focus solely on the context of new ventures.  Negotiation scholars have long looked to literature in a range of disciplines to better understand the dynamic, unpredictable nature of negotiation and to develop prescriptive advice for responding to the unexpected in any negotiation context (see Wheeler 2013b).  This interdisciplinary work has pulled from fields as diverse as jazz, improvisational theater, dynamical systems theory, and military strategy (Harding, 2019; Balachandra et al., 2015; Wheeler 2013a; Vallacher et al., 2010) ‒ and more recently, entrepreneurship (Manwaring et al., forthcoming 2021).  The entrepreneurship literature encompasses multiple processes with tantalizing analogies in negotiation, from opportunity identification and evaluation, to strategic “pivots” in response to unexpected developments, to wide-ranging forms of value creation and stakeholder relationship management (Kirtley & O’Mahony, 2020; Hampel et al., 2020).  Given the power of analogical learning in negotiation education (Nadler et al., 2003; Moran et al., 2008), negotiation researchers and educators alike may benefit from exploring connections with entrepreneurial processes and principles.  

    Finally, negotiation and entrepreneurship offer intriguing opportunities for interdisciplinary pedagogical exploration. As applied fields of study, both negotiation and entrepreneurship call for behavioral skill development and potentially for mindset adjustment in addition to theoretical understanding (see, e.g. McAdoo & Manwaring, 2009).  Accordingly, both disciplines have developed a range of creative, interactive teaching methods, the principles of which are reflected in a robust pedagogical literature (see, e.g., Journal of Entrepreneurship Education; Negotiation Journal’s “ Teaching Notes” section; Honeyman & Coben 2009-2013).  

    Given this background, possible research questions include, among others:

    • Are there documentable patterns in how successful entrepreneurs negotiate? What role does negotiation play in the ultimate success or failure of entrepreneurial ventures? What are the primary negotiation challenges or pitfalls that entrepreneurs should anticipate?   
    • What research-based prescriptive advice can be developed for entrepreneurs as to how, optimally, to negotiate? For example, can we provide evidence-based, prescriptive advice about tangible and subjective value creation in negotiation to inform how entrepreneurs frame their value propositions with potential investors, customers, and other stakeholders?  Do these prescriptions differ depending on whether the context is an entirely new venture or an entrepreneurial effort within an existing organization?
    • What types of conflicts and negotiations typically arise within entrepreneurial teams?  What negotiation strategies and conflict management processes tend to be most and least effective in this context?  Do these findings differ from those in more established organizations?
    • To what extent should negotiators act entrepreneurially, regardless of the negotiation context?  Can negotiators apply research, principles, or practices from entrepreneurship? If so, how?  For example, how might negotiators leverage the vast literature on the entrepreneurial opportunity identification/evaluation/generation process to assess or create opportunities in negotiation?
    • What are the philosophical approaches to (and implications of) exploring how to be “entrepreneurial” in negotiation?  Given the insights from effectuation (Sarasvathy, 1998), improvisation (Balachandra et al., 2005; Harding, 2019; Wheeler, 2013b), and bricolage (Baker & Nelson, 2005), what other entrepreneurial mindsets might be applicable and useful for negotiation processes?
    • How can research reconcile the conflicting effects of preparation and planning in entrepreneurial decisions (Shepherd et al., 2015) and in negotiations (Fisher et al., 1992)?  How does planning and preparation influence whether and how negotiators “pivot” in response to surprises or failed tactics?  
    • What are the benefits and drawbacks of different research methods for studying entrepreneurial negotiationsboth from the entrepreneur’s perspective and from the negotiator’s perspective?  
    • What insights from entrepreneurship education might be helpful for teaching negotiation, and vice versa?  

    About the sponsoring organizations

    The Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School (PON) serves a unique role in the world negotiation community.  As a dynamic, interdisciplinary research center dedicated to improving the theory and practice of negotiation and dispute resolution, PON draws from numerous fields of study, including law, business, government, psychology, economics, anthropology, education, and the arts.  Founded in 1983 and based at Harvard Law School, PON is a consortium of faculty and students from Harvard University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Tufts University, and other Boston-area schools.  

    Babson College is a global leader in undergraduate, graduate, and executive entrepreneurship education.  As an independent, not-for-profit, business-focused college based in Wellesley, Massachusetts, Babson’s mission is to prepare and empower entrepreneurial leaders who create, grow, and steward sustainable economic and social value everywhere. U.S. News and World Report has ranked Babson’s undergraduate program #1 for Entrepreneurship for 24 consecutive years, and its MBA program #1 for Entrepreneurship for 27 consecutive years.     

    Negotiation Journal is an international, multidisciplinary journal devoted to the publication of works that advance the theory, analysis, practice, and instruction of negotiation, mediation, and conflict resolution. The Journal's readers include educators, researchers, diplomats, lawyers, business leaders, labor negotiators, government officials, arbitrators, and mediators. Published by the Program on Negotiation at Harvard Law School, the Journal offers a wide range of articles, including those on the economic, legal, psychological, pedagogical, sociological, institutional, and theoretical aspects of dispute resolution. Readers will find reports on cutting-edge research, a wide range of case studies, teacher's reports about what does and doesn't work in the negotiations classroom, essays on leading practices, and integrative book reviews. The Journal especially welcomes submissions that cross disciplinary boundaries, address contemporary issues, and take a thoughtful and creative approach to the critical issues of our time.  


    Baker, T., & Nelson, R. E. (2005). Creating something from nothing: Resource construction through entrepreneurial bricolage. Administrative Science Quarterly 50(3): 329-366.

    Balachandra, L., R. Bordone,, C. Menkel-Meadow, P. Ringstrom, and E. Sarath (2005). Improvisation and negotiation: Expecting the unexpected. Negotiation Journal 21(4): 415-423. 

    Balachandra, L., T. Briggs, K. Eddleston, and C. Brush (2019). Don’t pitch like a girl!: How gender stereotypes influence investor decisions. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 43(1): 116–137. 

    Bhawe, N., V. Gupta, and J. M. Pollack (2017). Founder exits and firm performance: An exploratory study. Journal of Business Venturing Insights 8: 114-122. 

    Boone, S., P. Andries, and B. Clarysse (2020). Does team entrepreneurial passion matter for relationship conflict and team performance? On the importance of fit between passion focus and venture development stage.  Journal of Business Venturing, 35(5).

    Brush, C., P. Greene, L. Balachandra & A. Davis (2018). The gender gap in venture capital: Progress, problems, and perspectives.  Venture Capital 20(2): 115-136. 

    Busenitz, L. W., G. P. West III, D. Shepherd, T. Nelson, G. N. Chandler, and A. Zacharakis (2003). Entrepreneurship research in emergence: Past trends and future directions. Journal of Management 29(3): 285-308.

    Cardon, M., C. Mitteness, and R. Sudek (2016).  Motivational cues and angel investing: Interactions among enthusiasm, preparedness, and commitment.  Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 41(6). 10.1111/etap.12255. 

    Chen, M. H., Y. Y. Chang, and Y. C. Chang (2017). The trinity of entrepreneurial team dynamics: Cognition, conflicts and cohesion. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research 23(6): 934-951.

    Curhan, J. R., H. A. Elfenbein, and H. Xu (2006). What do people value when they negotiate? Mapping the domain of subjective value in negotiation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91(3): 493-512. 

    Dinnar, S. and L. Susskind (2019). Entrepreneurial negotiation: Understanding and managing the relationships that determine your entrepreneurial success.  The Netherlands: Palgrave Macmillan.  

    De Mol, E., V. Ho, and J. M. Pollack (2018). Predicting entrepreneurial burnout in a moderated mediated model of job fit. Journal of Small Business Management 56(3): 392-411.

    Erikson, T. and T. Berg-Utby (2009). Pre-investment negotiation characteristics and dismissal in venture capital-backed firms. Negotiation Journal 25(1): 41-57.

    Fayolle, A. (2007). Entrepreneurship and new value creation: the dynamic of the entrepreneurial process. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge University Press.

    Fisher, R., Ury, W. L., and Patton, B. M. (1992).  Getting to YES: Negotiating agreement without giving in. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin Company.  

    George, B., T. Erikson & A. Parhankangas (2016). Preventing dysfunctional conflict: Examining the relationship between different types of managerial conflict in venture capital-backed firms. Venture Capital 18(4): 279-296.

    Grossman, E. B., H. Yli-Renko, and R. Janakiraman (2012). Resource search, interpersonal similarity, and network tie valuation in nascent entrepreneurs’ emerging networks. Journal of Management 38(6): 1760-87.

    Hampel, C. E., P. Tracey, and K. Weber (2020). The art of the pivot: How new ventures manage identification relationships with stakeholders as they change direction. Academy of Management Journal 63(2): 440-471.

    Harding, C. (2019). Applying principles of improvisation to negotiation.  Negotiation Journal 36(2): 217-231.

    Honeyman, C. and J. Coben (eds.) (2009, 2010, 2012, 2013).  Rethinking Negotiation Teaching series.  St. Paul, MN: DRI Press.  

    Kanze, D., L. Huang, M. A. Conley, and E. T. Higgins (2018). We ask men to win and women not to lose: Closing the gender gap in startup funding. Academy of Management Journal 61(2): 586–614.

    Khanna, R., I. Guler and A. Nerkar (2015).  Fail often, fail big, and fail fast? Learning from small failures and R&D performance in the pharmaceutical industryAcademy of Management Journal 59(2): 436-459.

    Kirtley, J. and S. O'Mahony (2020). What is a pivot? Explaining when and how entrepreneurial firms decide to make strategic change and pivot. Strategic Management Journal. 10.1002/smj.3131.

    zusznik, M.W., H. Aaldering, and M. C. Euwema (2020). Star(tup) wars: decoupling task from relationship conflict.  International Journal of Conflict Management  31(3): 393-415. 

    Lewicki, R., B. Barry, and D. Saunders (2020).  Negotiation (8th ed.).  New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.  

    Malmström, M., A. Voitkane, J. Johansson, and J. Wincent (2018).  When stereotypical gender notions see the light of day, will they burst? Venture capitalists' gender constructions versus venturing performance facts.  Journal of Business Venturing Insights 9: 32-28.  

    Manwaring, M., A. Weirup, and L. Balachandra (forthcoming 2021).  Negotiating the pandemic like an entrepreneur: Lessons from the turbulent world of start-up ventures.  Negotiation Journal 37(1).

    Maxwell, A.L. and M. Lévesque (2014).  Trustworthiness: A critical ingredient for entrepreneurs seeking investors. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 38(5):1057-1080.

    McAdoo, B. and M. Manwaring (2009). Teaching for implementation: Designing negotiation curricula to maximize long-term learning.  Negotiation Journal 25(2): 195-215.  

    Mischel, W. (1997). The interaction of person and situation. In D. Magnusson and N. S. Endler (Eds.), Personality at the crossroads: Current issues in interactional psychology (pp. 333-352). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

    Moran, S., Y. Bereby-Meyer, and M. Bazerman (2008). Stretching the effectiveness of analogical training in negotiation: Teaching diverse principles for creating value. Negotiation and Conflict Management Research 1(2): 99-134. 

    Nadler, J., L. Thompson, and L. van Boven (2003). Learning negotiation skills: Four models of knowledge creation and transfer. Management Science 49(4): 529-540.

    Rutherford, M. W., J. Pollack, M. Mazzei, and P. Sanchez-Ruiz (2017). Bootstrapping: Reviewing the literature, clarifying the construct, and charting a new path forward. Group & Organizational Management 42(5): 657-706.

    Santos, S. C., M. H. Morris, A. Caetano, S. F. Costa, and X. Neumeyer (2019). Team entrepreneurial competence: Multilevel effects on individual cognitive strategies. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research 25(6): 1259-1282.  

    Saraswathy, S. D. (1998). Causation and effectuation:  Toward a theoretical shift from economic inevitability to entrepreneurial contingency.  Academy of Management Review 26 (2): 243-263. 

    Shepherd, D. A., T. A. Williams, and H. Patzelt (2015). Thinking about entrepreneurial decision-making: Review and research agenda. Journal of Management 41(1): 11-46.

    Shepherd, C. D., G. Marchisio, S. C. Morrish, J. H. Deacon, and M. P. Miles (2010). Entrepreneurial burnout: Exploring antecedents, dimensions and outcomes. Journal of Research in Marketing and Entrepreneurship 12(1): 71-79.

    Staw, B. M. (1991). Dressing up like an organization: When psychological theories can explain organizational action. Journal of Management 17: 805-819.

    Vallacher, R., P. Coleman, A. Nowak and L. Bui-Wrzosinska (2010).  Dynamical foundations of intractable conflict: Introduction to the special issue.  Journal of Peace Psychology 16(2): 113-125.  

    Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research.  In J. Katz  and R. Brockhaus (Eds.), Advances in Entrepreneurship, Firm Emergence and Growth, vol. 3 (pp. 119-138).  Greenwich, CT: JAI Press. 

    Wheeler, M. (2013a). The fog of negotiation: What negotiators can learn from military doctrine. Negotiation Journal 29(1): 23-38.  

    Wheeler, M. (2013b). The art of negotiation: How to improvise agreement in a chaotic world. New York: Simon & Schuster.  

    Wincent, J. and D. Örtqvist (2009). A comprehensive model of entrepreneur role stress: Antecedents and consequences. Journal of Business and Psychology 24(2): 225-243. 

    Yin, J., M. Jia, Z. Ma, and G. Liao (2020). Team leader’s [sic] conflict management styles and innovation performance in entrepreneurial teams. International Journal of Conflict Management. 10.1108/IJCMA-09-2019-0168. 

    Lakshmi Balachandra
    Associate Professor, Entrepreneurship
    Babson College
    Babson Park, MA United States