Industry 4.0. was introduced in the German manufacturing industry to refer to the digital dimension of future industrial structures (Schroeder, 2016). It was defined as the technical integration of cyber-physical systems into production and logistics as well as the application of the Internet of Things in industrial processes (Forschungsunion & Acatech 2013 in Wolter, et al. 2015). Until now, the management and business literature has mainly addressed new commercial, organizational and operational possibilities associated with these technologies. Still, the potentialities of specific Industry 4.0 technologies often is addressed without considering the generic positive (or negative) effects that they may have on the companies’ environmental strategy and performance. This Special Issue (SI) provides an opportunity for scholars, practitioners and policy makers to reflect and enhance the understanding on both positive and negative futures of Industry 4.0 technologies with respect to environmental sustainability.